Allah Almighty is the all-knowing all-wise creator. He has considered a unique way of perfection for every creature and then guided it to reach its excellence (20:50). Human beings, as autonomous creatures, are in real need of divine guidance to know how to live a perfect and purposeful life. According to Islamic beliefs, the Quran is the divine revelation to Prophet Muhammad PBUH&HP that contains necessary guidelines for human beings: "As We sent to you an Apostle from among yourselves, who recites to you Our signs, and purifies you, and teaches you the Book and wisdom, and teaches you what you did not know." (2:151). The question is that, is the Quran Allah's words? Let's see why the answer is: Yes.
If the Quran was Prophet Muhammad's PBUH&HP words, his PBUH&HP narrations should have been of the same eloquence and beauty of the Quran. But that's not the case. The Quran is unique in style, expression system, and arrangement. And that's why no one has been able to bring even a chapter (Surah) similar to that of the Quran. As the Quran says: "And if you are in doubt concerning what We have sent down to Our servant, then bring a Surah like it, and invoke your helpers besides Allah, should you be truthful." (2:23). Although the prophetic narrations are articulate and eloquent, some of them have been imitated and distorted, unlike the Quran .
If the Quran were Prophet Muhammad's PBUH & HP words, it would have been logical for him to claim that these eloquent words were his. Consequently, he could have promoted his position, fascinated his opposers, and gathered more followers. But, he never intended to be considered and praised as a superior power. On the contrary, in one instance, someone came to him and was uneasy because of his magnificence and grandeur, he said: "Calm down! I am not a king" .
In some of the Quranic verses, the objections and disagreements of Prophet's PBUH&HP opposers are answered. If the Quran was Prophet Muhammad's PBUH&HP words, all these verses should have been quickly revealed right after an objection was raised, or when he was insulted or oppressed. But, this was not always the case .
For example, the Qiblah at the time of Prophet Muhammad PBUH&HP was originally the Noble Sanctuary (Al-Aqsa Compound), similar to Judaism. That was a reason for Jews to mock Muslims and say that Muslims follow them; hence, they are superior. Prophet PBUH&HP waited 16 months for the divine revelation to let him change the Qiblah while he was disturbed by Jew's words. It was after such a long delay that he received a response: "turn your face towards the Holy Mosque, and wherever you may be, turn your faces towards it!" (2:144). If the Quran was Prophet Muhammad's PBUH&HP words, he could have changed the Qiblah much sooner and suffer less.
In some of the verses of the Quran, Prophet Muhammad PBUH&HP is warned. In Surah Tawbah, he is told that: "May Allah excuse you! Why did you grant them to leave [to stay behind] before those who told the truth were evident to you, and you had ascertained the liars?" (9:43), or in another Ayat: "A prophet may not take captives until he has thoroughly decimated [the enemy] in the land." (8:67). Is it logical at all that someone blames himself and makes it public?
Prophet Muhammad PBUH&HP was not literate, and this is stated in the Quran and historical records. "You did not use to recite any scripture before it, nor did you write it with your right hand, for then the impugners would have been skeptical." (29:48). So, how can someone illiterate bring such eloquent words?
This holy book was revealed for 23 years. And something astonishing about the Quran is that there is no contradiction among the verses of it. If it was a human's words, there surely existed contradictions and errors in the Quran because human beings are forgetful, and for example, they forget what they told two years ago. But, this is not true about the Quran.
- Allah's words
- M. H. Hakimi, et al. "Al-Hayat," vol. 2, Translation: A. Aram, Iran, 1986.
“Muhammad is not the father of any man among you, but he is the Apostle of Allah and the Seal of the Prophets, and Allah has knowledge of all things” (33:40).
Based on some Islamic narrations, God has sent as many as 124000 prophets to humankind throughout history in different lands; the first of whom was Prophet Adam (AS), and the last divine prophet was Prophet Muhammad (PBUH).
What do you think was the primary purpose for which the prophets were raised? God says in the Holy Quran:
“O Prophet! Indeed, We have sent you as a witness, as a bearer of good news and as a warner. and as a summoner to Allah by His permission, and as a radiant lamp” (33:45-46)
“Certainly We sent Our apostles with manifest proofs, and We sent down with them the Book and the Balance, so that mankind may maintain justice;” (57:25)
According to the verses above and many other verses in the Quran [i], prophets were all sent to awaken the inner prophet within each person (i.e. people’s reason), guide them to the right path and invite them to monotheism (worshipping the only One God), which would ultimately lead to their well-being and salvation here in this world and also the hereafter. In fact, no one can deny the effective role prophets had in different aspects of people’s lives in history, as Will Durant puts:
“There is no significant example in history, before our time, of a society successfully maintaining moral life without the aid of religion. France, the United States, and some other nations have divorced their governments from all churches, but they have had the help of religion in keeping social order” .
Now you might wonder, “if God is One and all the prophets were sent to bring us closer to Him, then why would He send different religions?”
From the Quranic point of view there is No such thing as different religions, but rather “all Prophets irrespective of the fact whether they had or did not have an independent code of law, had the same mission and preached the same message” . Quran says:
“Indeed, with Allah religion is Islam, and those who were given the Book did not differ except after knowledge had come to them…” (3:19)
So, why would God send as many as 124000 prophets?
The answer is God’s message had to be renewed and developed according to the requirements of the time, the environment and also the people to whom God’s prophets were sent. Based on the stage of human development in each time and environment, a preaching or law-giving prophet [ii] would come to restore the divine message which had previously been changed, destroyed or distorted by people.
As stated above, people’s intellectual immaturity was the main reason why God renewed his message and developed it over time. However, by the advent of Islam and revelation of the holy Quran, humanity had passed the period of its childhood and had become mature enough to preserve its intellectual heritage, i.e., the religion of God. One thing that proves human’s maturity at the time of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HP) is that literacy had become more common among people.
That is why the Prophet’s (PBUH&HP) main miracle is not of anything physical, material and time-dependent, instead, it is a book which is made of words understandable for people of all times. In other words, God, then, guides people and shows them His signs using words (Quran) not by events like parting the sea (led by prophet Moses) or healing the blind or the sick (led by prophet Jesus). God’s message, accordingly, was revived through the revelation of the holy Quran and hence, Muhammad (PBUH&HP) was the last prophet of God.
It is noteworthy that the majority of divine prophets were the preaching ones who would interpret and spread the teachings of the law-giving prophets. But now that God has provided all requirements for humans to achieve their individual and social perfection giving them His book of guidance and wisdom to think, and people have reached a higher intellectual stage and become mature enough to interpret God’s message [iii], there won’t be a need for a new prophet.
At this age of knowledge, the religious scholars are capable of applying the general principles of Islam to the requirements of the time and place and deducing the rules of religious laws :
“The scholars are the inheritor of prophets” Imam Sadiq .
It is clear from what has been discussed above that the intellectual maturity of human has played an essential role in the finality of prophethood in several ways:
It has enabled man to receive his evolutionary program all at once and not by stages,
It has enabled him to keep the celestial Word of God (Quran) unaltered,
It has enabled him to interpret the revealed word of Allah, preach and propagate the teachings of religion and apply the religious principles to all the changing circumstances .
The last mentioned task is now performed by religious experts (Mujtahid) and is named Ijtihad meaning striving and making an effort to deduce the divine laws of Islam from the reliable sources and proofs.
The finality of prophethood does not mean that humanity is now able to dispense with religion. It is the need for prophets and the revelation of God that has ceased to exist, which is only because God’s message has been immune to any sort of alteration or distortion since the advent of Islam:
“Indeed We have sent down the Reminder, and indeed We will preserve it” (15:9)
This message is indestructible, and all people of next generations can have a recurring experience when dealing with it, irrespective of time.
However, God has never left the earth devoid of His guidance, and Imams as the successors of the Holy Prophet (PBUH&HP) have played the main part in maintaining humans’ spiritual connection with God from then on.
[i] “Certainly We raised an apostle in every nation [to preach:] ‘Worship Allah, and shun fake deities.’ Among them were some whom Allah guided, and among them were some who deserved to be in error. So travel over the land and observe how was the fate of the deniers” (16:36). Also see: (7:59, 7:65, 7:85 and 7:73)
[ii] The messengers of God where either law-giving, who would be sent with a noble message and guidance and whose number did not exceed the fingers of one hand, or preaching who would spread and propagate the teachings of the law-giving ones.
[iii] "We ought to present you with the principles and you ought to arrive at specific conclusions from them." Imam Sadiq (AS) 
[iv] the holy Quran, the tradition of the holy prophet and 12 infallible Imams (Sunnah), consensus (Ijma`), and reason (`Aql)
- Mand and Universe
- Wasail al-Shia, Bab 6, Hadith 51, 52
- al-Kafi, vol. 1, p. 32, Hadith 2
Knowing themselves as the true Muslims and real Arabs, ISIS wanted to establish an Islamic State in which Islam rules. They attacked thousands of places several times, held many as slaves, mostly women and children, and murdered thousands, whether army forces or ordinary people. Although the focus of their activities was in Iraq and Syria, surely you remember what they committed in France and other countries far from Iraq and Syria. On their opposite side were Iraqi and Syrian forces who were also Muslim and Arab and finally overcame ISIS.
Two groups of Muslims are in war. Which side was true? We shed light on some terms to clarify the issue.
The last prophet (PBUH&HP) was an Arab and began his mission in an Arab country. The language of the Quran and Islamic rituals is Arabic, too. This has led to the fusion of terms such as Islam, Muslims, and Arabs. But there are about 1.8 billion Muslims and about 400 million Arabs in the world. So, not all Muslims are Arab. Like anyone else in the world, Arabs can choose their religion. There are Arabs with religions other than Islam or even ethnic Arabs. So not all Arabs, but many of them, are Muslim.
Anyone who believes that: 1. there is no true god but Allah, 2. Allah has sent prophets to guide humankind, and 3. the day of judgment is true and will come, and pronounces the testimonies of faith (Shahaadatain) is a Muslim [i].
These are the gates to the world of rationality and peace. The world designed for a perfect version of life; in which no room has been arranged for violence. But ISIS forces, who claimed to be Muslim, oppressed many countries and two of them in particular and killed many innocent people. They had not tasted faith; they only used Islamic coverage to reach their goals.
You can find some pictures of ISIS dead forces with a spoon in their pocket. They believed that after their death, they will meet Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HP) and will eat with him in heaven. Poor fools! I think if they did not die on time, they would not catch that meal and they had to wash the dishes.
Therefore, we should differentiate between a Muslim and a Muslim believer.
“The Bedouins say: We have faith. Say: You do not have faith yet; rather say: We have embraced Islam; for faith has not yet entered into your hearts.” (49:14)
Any believer is a Muslim, but not all Muslims are believers.
Saying some words turns you into a Muslim and the rules of Islam runs for you. But the faith is saying what you believe by heart and showing this in your deeds. So, having faith is a higher stage after accepting Islam. A Muslim believer tries to be fully acquainted with Islam and the logic behind its rules and adapt every aspect of life with Islamic teachings.
The nature of all divine religions has been the same, i.e., surrendering to God and obeying Him in all aspects. There have only been little differences in some formalities. Like other religions, although Islam emerged in a particular locality, it was not restricted to that.
Verily, this Qur'an is a reminder for humankind throughout the world. (81:27)
The religions and instructions brought by prophets to people were in accordance with the capacity and level of understanding of different eras. But Islam is the last religion and was brought by the last prophet (PBUH&HP)[ii]. There will be no other religion after that. So, Islam must be an all-inclusive religion, containing all the necessities of human beings until the end. Islam is the continuation of the previous religions and completes them.
It has been traditional for God to appoint a religious leader for people at all times to guide them and clarify the Devine instructions.
Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HP) has marked the correct path of Islam forever in one of the most famous and important Islamic narrations (thaqalain): “Verily, I am leaving behind two precious things among you: The Book of God and my kindred, my household. As far as you take hold of these two, you will never go astray. For indeed, the two will never separate until they come to me by the Pond (of al-Kawthar on the Judgement's Day).”  Prophet Muhammad and the twelve Imams (AS) after Him are leaders of Islam. But now that the twelfth Imam is absent, how should we determine the correct path?
Three sources to the pure Islam;
Islam 1: Quran and authentic narrations from Imams.
Islam 2: Interpretations of Islamic jurisprudents of Islam 1.
Islam 3: The manner of Muslim public.
If we base our opinion towards Islam on Islam 3, it will result in a many-colored or contradictory type of Islam; because we observe different beliefs and customs in Muslim nations.
The best way is following the Islamic jurisprudent who are best familiar with Islam and can take us as near as possible to the truth of Islam.
Anything belonging or referring to Islam which agrees to its basis can be called Islamic. It can be an Islamic government, an Islamic rule, Islamic food, etc.
The actions of nations, groups, and important figures claiming to be Muslim should not form our opinion about Islam. We should be fully familiar with Islam and based on this recognition, decide if something is Islamic or not.
Imam Ali (AS) says: “Truth is not recognized by figures; Know the truth, you will recognize its followers.” 
[i]. See “The Islamic axioms”
[ii]. See “Is Muhammad (PBUH&HP) the Last Prophet?”
- Wassail Al-Shi’a, v.27, p.34; Bihar Al-Anvar, v.2, p.100
- Bihar Al-Anvar, v.40, p.126