Full body ablution (Ghusl) refers to an Islamic ritual in which an adult (Mukallaf) Muslim is recommended to wash his/her full body with specific rulings.
In this article, we will explain different types of full-body ablution (Ghusl) and their rulings.
Muslim jurists have driven the rules of full-body ablution (Ghusl) based on different verses of the Quran and different narrations and traditions. The main verse of the Quran that is referred to in deriving the rules of full-body ablution (Ghusl) is the following:
“O you who have faith! Do not approach prayer when you are intoxicated, [not] until you know what you are saying, nor [enter mosques] in the state of ritual impurity until you have washed yourselves, except while passing through. But if you are sick or on a journey, or any of you has come from the toilet, or you have touched women, and you cannot find water, then make your full-body ablution on clean ground and wipe a part of your faces and your hands. Indeed Allah is all-excusing, all-forgiving.” (4:43)
Based on the above verse, Muslim jurists have provided the following rules for full-body ablution (Ghusl):
Different types of full-body ablution (Ghusl) can be categorized as follows:
a) The full-body ablution (Ghusl) for ritual impurity (Janabah)
b) The full-body ablution (Ghusl) for touching a corpse (Mass al-Mayyit)
c) The full-body ablution (Ghusl) given to a corpse (Mayyit)
d) The full-body ablution (Ghusl) that becomes obligatory on the account of a vow (Nazr), oath (Qassam), etc.
a) The full-body ablution (Ghusl) for menstruation (Haydh)
b) The full-body ablution (Ghusl) for lochia (Nifas)
c) The full-body ablution (Ghusl) for irregular blood discharge (Istihadhah) 
There are some specific times that Muslims are recommended to perform full-body ablution (Ghusl), for example, the Friday Full-body ablution (Ghusl-e Jum’ah), or the full-body ablution (Ghusl) that are recommended to perform on specific Islamic occasions such as the nights of decree. (Laylatul Qadr). 
There are two methods to perform full-body ablution (Ghusl) that will be described in this part. The first thing to do before starting the full-body ablution (Ghusl) is to make an intention for it. However, it is not necessary to perform a separate full-body ablution (Ghusl) for different intentions.
If there are several recommended (Mustahab) or obligatory full-body ablutions (Ghusl) to be performed and one performs one full-body ablution (Ghusl) with the intention of performing all of them, it is sufficient. However, if one of them is full-body ablution (Ghusl) of ritual impurity (Janabah) and the intention is made to perform it, it suffices for all other full-body ablutions (Ghusl), although caution is to make the intention for all of them. 
In sequential full-body ablution (Ghusl), one must – based on obligatory precaution – first, with the intention of full-body ablution (Ghusl), wash the entire head and neck and then the entire body. It is better to first wash the right side of the body, then the left. If one intentionally or due to being negligent in learning the laws of full-body ablution (Ghusl)does not wash the entire head and neck before washing the body, then based on obligatory precaution his full-body ablution (Ghusl)is invalid. Furthermore, based on obligatory precaution, when performing full-body ablution (Ghusl), it is not sufficient to make the intention of full-body ablution (Ghusl) when moving the head, neck, or body while they are already under the flow of water; rather, the part that one wants to perform full-body ablution (Ghusl)on – on the condition that it is already under the flow of water – must be taken out from under the flow of water and then washed with the intention of full-body ablution (Ghusl). 
In this type of full-body ablution (Ghusl) water must cover the entire body in one go. However, it is not necessary for the entire body to be out of the water before starting the full-body ablution (Ghusl): rather it will suffice if part of the body is out of the water and the person goes under the water completely with the intention of performing full-body ablution (Ghusl). An example of instantaneous immersive full-body ablution (Ghusl)is when a person, with the int¬ention of performing full-body ablution (Ghusl), dives/jumps into a swimming pool and in doing so completely immerses himself in the water; or, the person may already be partially immersed in the water and he then completely immerses himself with the intention of full-body ablution (Ghusl). 
In gradual immersive full-body ablution (Ghusl), one must gradually – but in a way that can be commonly considered to be one unified action – immerse his body in water with the intention of full-body ablution (Ghusl). In this type of full-body ablution (Ghusl), it is necessary for each part of the body to be out of the water before it is washed. An example of gradual immersive full-body ablution (Ghusl) is when a person, with the intention of performing full-body ablution (Ghusl), immerses part of his body in a bathtub of water and then takes that part out of the water; then, he immerses another part of his body and takes it out, and so on until all the parts of his body have been immersed. 
The water that is permissible for full-body ablution (Ghusl) can be Rainwater, Well water, water from spring, sea, or river water, water of melting snow or hail, the water of a big tank or pond. Ghusl is not allowed with unclean or impure water or water extracted from fruit and trees. 
As a kind of solution for decreasing the financial problems of the Islamic society, especially those of underprivileged people, Islam has offered some ways that one of the most effective of which is Khums. In the literal sense, Khums in Islam means one-fifth of something and in the sharia of Islam is one of the most important financial mandatory rules and is generally defined as paying one-fifth of the remainder of your yearly income.
Generally speaking, Khums becomes obligatory in seven cases, but the one which is inscribed to income is considered as the most salient kind. In this case, one has to pay one-fifth of what has remained from his income after subtracting his own expenses on the exact date that he has paid Khums in the previous year; in other words, one should specify a date on which he would pay his Khums every year.
There are certain kinds of income that would make the payment of Khums obligatory: agricultural income, commercial and trading income, income earned through renting something (e.g., house, car, etc.), the income that one earns through working for someone else.
On the other hand, in some cases, paying Khums is not necessary anymore, including the inherited money, gifts, rewards, marriage portion (Mahrieh)[i], mortmain property (Waqf), borrowed money, money paid by the insurance company, money paid as a scholarship to university students, money the Khums of which has been paid once, etc[ii] .
Basically, Khums is divided into two parts, one is given to Imam – who is your Religious expert (Marja Taqlid) or other qualified religious experts - and the other part is for descendants of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HP) (Sadaat) who are poor, orphan or faced with difficulty on their journey.
Generally speaking, paying Khums brings about two kinds of effects, in two scales: first of all spiritual effects upon each and second, financial advantages upon the whole society.
As one of the forms of serving God, Khums should be paid with the intention of Allah’s satisfaction; accordingly firm belief and true faith guarantees performing this task. What’s more, engaging in this activity will arise a sense of generosity and philanthropy in the person, wipes away greediness and avarice from his soul and provides the necessary condition for benefiting from Allah’s spiritual and material blessings.
Furthermore, by paying a certain amount of money to the religious experts (Marja Taqlid), one feels involved in the practice of spreading the religion and Islamic ideology in the society and will always remain in the right side, helping the people who follow God’s commands against those who have transgressed from His way.
Another result of performing the holy task of Khums is that it will make the person more financially organized and dutiful, feeling responsible for underprivileged Muslims in the society and striving in the way of Allah and His Prophet (PBUH&HP).
As we already know, one of the main reasons for sending prophets was to provide the necessary grounds for establishing social justice through people themselves. So, they brought many rules that would pave their way to achieve this aim, one of the most important of which is paying Khums.
In fact, Khums acts as an equalizer of wealth within the Islamic community; Each individual with the intention of God’s satisfaction and true faith, donate a part of the remainder of his earnings to one of the most reliable, faithful and God-fearing people in the society - religious expert - in order for him to spend it for the purpose of improving the society.
Paying Khums provides the sufficient resources for the people who are engaged in preaching Islam in the world and in some way reinforce the Islamic government. This money will help religious experts to spend their time and energy in inviting people to religion, answering their doubts and clarifying Islamic rules and regulations for them.
Moreover, this holy task will simultaneously produce two effects in Islamic society: involving religious experts in people’s financial difficulties will result in a closer and stronger relationship between them on one hand, and being responsible to give certain amount of money away, on the other hand, will make people more attentive to one another’s problems, create a bond between different classes within the society and reduce the gap between them through fairly distributing the wealth.
[i]. A mandatory payment, in the form of money or possessions paid by the groom, or by the groom's father, to the bride at the time of marriage that legally becomes her property .
[ii]. It is noteworthy that the cases above are varied according to different religious experts.
- Ayatollah Khamenei, Resale Amuzeshi (didactic treatise), Khums rules and regulations
The best way to begin this article is by this beautiful saying of Imam Sadiq (AS) regarding Hajj: “The pilgrims, i.e., performers of Hajj or ‘Umrah’ are the guests of Allah, if they ask for something, He will answer them; if they supplicate to Him, He will answer them; if they intercede, He will accept it; and if they keep quiet, He will be the beginner, and they will be compensated instead of one Dirham, a million Dirhams” [i].
Literally speaking, Hajj means heading to a place for the sake of visiting. In Islamic terminology, Hajj is a pilgrimage made to Kaaba, the ‘House of God’, in the sacred city of Mecca in Saudi Arabia. It is obligatory for every Muslim to perform Hajj at least once in their lifetime provided that he/she is physically and financially able to do so. The rites of Hajj, which go back to the time of Prophet Abraham who built Kaaba after it had been first built by Prophet Adam, are performed over five or six days, beginning on the eighth and ending on the thirteenth day of Dhu al-Hijjah, the last month of the Islamic calendar.
Hajj is the ultimate form of worship, as it involves the spirit of all the other rituals. Nearly two million Muslims from all over the world meet each other and refresh in themselves the faith that all Muslims are equal and deserve the love and sympathy of others, regardless of their race, wealth, status, class, culture and ethnic origin .
Generally, there are three kinds of Hajj: Hajj al-tamattu, Ifrad, and Qiran. The first is the duty of a person whose home is located 16 farsakhs (about 90 km) away from Mecca. The second and the third (Ifrad and Qiran) are the duties of those who live in Mecca or outside it within this distance. Hajj al-tamattu differs from the two other kinds in its rituals and practices which is the focus of this article. It is also noteworthy that even Hajj al-tamattu becomes obligatory under certain circumstances, including sanity, adulthood [ii] and Istita’ah [iii] .
In the context of Hajj al-tamattu, the question of ability to perform this task (Istita’ah) and who is capable of it (Mustati) is of utmost importance and a very sensitive issue. To be Mustati, you should have the following abilities:
financial ability – i.e., you have enough money to support yourself and your family on your journey,
physical ability- i.e., Hajj is not obligatory for the sick, the old or those who are either unable or would face severe hardship,
Sirbi ability - i.e., the route is open and safe,
Time ability- i.e., that there should be enough time to go on Hajj after becoming Mustati .
Bearing these conditions in mind, let’s take a brief look at the rituals a person should perform when they go on Hajj.
Basically, Hajj al-tamattu consists of two parts: Umrah of Tamattu [iv] and the Hajjah, both have to be performed in the same year in Dhu al-Hijjah.
Prayer of Tawaf
The pilgrims who visit Prophet Muhammad's (PBUH&HP) shrine and Imams' sepulcher in Medina before performing Hajj rituals, become Muhrim in Masjid al-Shajarah, and those who travel to Mecca from Jeddah become Muhrim in Juhfah.
To be Muhrim, men should take out all the clothes that are stitched and instead wear a two-part unsewn and clean white garment, one covering the lower parts of their body and the other their shoulders. Women, however, can wear stitched clothes provided that they are clean and white, and their face is not covered by anything. Then intending to perform the Umrah of Tamattu, they should say: LabbaikAllahommalabbaik,labbaika la sharikalakalabbaikm [vi].
Now you are Muhrim and ready for entering the sacred house of God.
Hunting the land animal
Kissing the woman.
Touching the woman
Looking at the woman and indulging in foreplay
For men only: wearing the sewn clothes
Applying kohl on the eyes
Looking in a mirror
Wearing shoes or socks (For men only)
Cursing other people
Quarreling with others
Killing the insects on one’s body
Applying oil on the body
Getting rid of the bodily hair
For men only: covering the head. (Even submerging the head in a body of water is not allowed, for both men as well as women.)
Covering the face (For women)
For men: shading themselves from sun or rain.
Causing blood to come out of one’s body
Clipping the nail
Pulling out the teeth 
After saying your intention (Niyyah), you have to circumambulate (turn around) Kaaba located in Masjid al-haram seven times; “a fixed point in the center and everything else moving round it; a circular movement… sun in the center and turning round it are people, each a star in their own sky” ; you are performing Tawaf.
The reason for this rite is that the heart and soul of the pilgrim should move around the House of Allah and his love for Allah should become so great that no worldly attraction, neither the East nor the West, would distract him from this path. Only the Oneness of Allah (Tawhid) should attract him. Tawaf also conveys the message of unity. The pilgrims have come from different countries in the world; they have all gathered in Masjid al-haram circumambulating around Kaaba. It seems as though they were drops of water that now have made a huge ocean altogether .
When circumambulating, note that Kaaba should be on your left side, your clothes should be completely clean, and you should perform Wudu (ablution) before starting. Also, be careful not to bump into other pilgrims and keep your shoulders straight. After completing this holy task, you should perform a Salat which is called prayer of Tawaf (Tawaf’s Salat) and is performed like Morning Prayer behind Maqam Ibrahim.
Now, you have done your Tawaf and performed the Salat after it; what you will go through next is called Sa’y. You should walk the distance between Safa and Marwah seven times, starting from Safa and terminate the first lap at Marwah, then walk the second lap from it to Safa and so on till you terminate the seventh lap at Marwah. Don’t worry, if you get tired you are allowed to take a brief rest and start over from where you stopped.
Last but not least, in the rituals that should be performed throughout Umrah al-tamattu is called Taqsir, meaning that you have to cut a short piece of your hair or nails. With this task done, your Ihram will be finished, and everything that was Haram in this process will become Halal again, and you can take off your Ihram clothes.
Congratulations! You made it; you have completed the first part of your pilgrimage. Now, you will enter the next phase, called Hajjah.
Staying at Arafat
Staying at Muzdalifah (Mash'arul Haram)
Going to Mina
Stoning the Jamratul Uqba
Sacrificing an animal
Tawaf of Hajj
Prayer of Tawaf of Hajj
Prayer of Tawaf-un Nisa
Staying at Mina
Stoning the three pillars (Jamaraat) on the 11th and 12th of the month
On the 8th day of Dhul-Hijja, pilgrims become Muhrim again and go to Arafah -a plain about 20 km Southeast of Mecca- and stay there on the 9th of Dhul-Hijja from noon to sunset. You can walk, sit or sleep, talk or keep quiet and think in there, but it is strongly recommended to spend the entire day, especially the afternoon, in supplication and Dua.
At sunset, you have to set out to Muzdalifah (Mash’arul Haram) where you are supposed to stay until sunrise and at which you gather pebbles for hitting the Jamaraat. Then on the 10th day, you leave for the land of Mina. You need to stone the Jamratul Uqba (biggest pillar) with seven pebbles, sacrifice a sheep, a camel or a cow, and shave your head or perform Taqsir [vii].
After performing three of these you can come out of Ihram, but there are still acts you have to do and ones that are forbidden like wearing perfume, hunting, and marital relations.
Tawaf of Kaaba; you turn around Kaaba, seven times as you did for Umrah.
Salat of Tawaf; after performing Tawaf, recite two-Rak’at Salat behind Maqam-e- Ibrahim.
Sa’y; perform Sa’y the same as the one did for Umrah except for the intention which has to be of Hajj-al-Tamattu.
Tawaf-un-Nisa; return to Kaaba and perform another Tawaf with the intention of Tawaf-un-Nisa of Hajj-e-Tamattu.
Salat of Tawaf-un-Nisa; recite another two Rak’at Salat behind Maqam-e-Ibrahim with the intention of Salat of Tawaf-un-Nisa of Hajj-al-Tamattu.
Spending the night in the land of Mina; it is obligatory (Wajib) to spend the night of 11th and 12th of Dhu al-Hijjah in Mina.
Rami al Jamaraat; while in Mina, you have to stone all the three pillars (Jamaraat) with seven pebbles between sunrise and sunset on both the 11th and 12th day.
After stoning the three Jamaraat on the 12th day, you will leave Mina for Mecca before sunset. Your Hajj is complete, and you are free to do everything you were allowed to do before Ihram. There is also a great emphasis on visiting the Prophet's mosque in Madinah before or after Hajj. Pilgrims return to their countries after Hajj rituals, and they are as pure as a newborn baby.
May God accept your Hajj.
[i] A unit of currency in several Arab states
[ii] People who have reached the age of shar‘ī puberty
[iii] Having the capacity to perform Hajj
[iv] Not to be confused with the Umrah al-mufradah which refers to Umrah that is performed independently of Hajj. However, they have some rituals in common.
[vi] «لَبَّيْكَ اللّهُمَّ لَبَّيْكَ، لَبَّيْكَ لا شَرِيكَ لَكَ لَبَّيْكَ»: "Here I am (for Hajj). Oh Allah, here I am. Here I am. You have no partner. Here I am."
[vii] Women clip their hair or the tip of their fingernail.