The young Muslims of today are facing an ever-increasing number of plights, one of the most important of which is drugs. But, what is Islam’s view on this issue? How should Muslims regard drugs? To know this, we must see what the Quran and the prophet’s and Imams’ conducts (Sirah) say regarding narcotics.
Since drugs were not known at the advent of Islam, therefore we cannot see any direct evidence in the Sirah on this issue throughout history; so the only way is referring to general rules and principles of jurisprudence.
In general, it has been indicated, firstly, that since drug consuming inflicts tremendous losses, it is considered as forbidden (Haram), unless medical emergencies and necessities require it. Secondly, buying and selling it, is forbidden except where rational, lawful benefits are received, such as medicine production. This form of usage must be under precise official supervision and control. Based on these facts, Muslim scholars hammered out four rational and crystal clear reasons for the forbiddance of drug consumption:
All intoxicants are regarded as forbidden because of their inebriant repercussions, as well as their physical-mental adverse effects on individuals and communities. Moreover, drug consumption causes moral degeneration, body and intellect corruption, inflicts severe cultural, social and economic losses and finally ruins societies.
Someone who suffers drug addiction is not able to oversee his behavior, loses his zeal, motivation and common sense, and as a result is ready to do anything to obtain drugs without any consideration. A Drug-addicted person, also, cannot fully adhere to his Islamic practices, since drugs turn him into an irresponsible and a total inefficacious human.
Wise men throughout history always avoided using drugs and this attitude is entirely in line with the Islamic law (Shari’a). Following in the footsteps of great personalities and considering their lifestyle is an authoritative way and a logical ground to reason against drug consumption.
This rule is one the most important and fundamental jurisprudential rules which is applied to a wide range of Islamic teachings. On this basis, people should not engage in deeds that inflict excessive losses. Today, we can say from experience that drug consumption encompasses significant social and individual damages and creates completely irresponsible generations. Accordingly, the rule of “No harming nor reciprocating harm” can provide us with the most rational ground to argue against drug consumption; its adverse effects are not only directed to the drug-addicted person himself/herself but also his/her family, relatives and even the whole society.
Furthermore, drug addiction is one of the most significant causes of self-destructing and life-ruining behaviors. We have a clear affirmation about this reality as Allah Almighty says: “and do not cast yourselves with your own hands into destruction” (2:195).
In Islam, every evil thing which results in heavy losses is forbidden (Haram); clearly, the drug with its many negative effects on a broad spectrum of people is categorized as highly harmful. There is a vivid indication on this claim in the Holy Quran: “He makes lawful to them all the good things and forbids them from all vicious things” (7:157).
The weakness in wisdom and perception power can be considered among the most important disadvantages of drug consumption; therefore, Islam names “common sense preservation” as the most important obligation for a Muslim. Now it is easy to understand why the Islamic law (Shari’a) bans all sorts of intoxicants like alcohol, drugs, etc.
It is noteworthy that based on the first-ever report on worldwide addiction statistics released by researchers, which uses data from sources including the World Health Organization and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, drug addiction has reached epidemic levels across the globe and there were 230 million drug users worldwide in 2015. The report found that drug takes a higher toll on “productive years of life lost” than does any other intoxicant. That means people dependent on drugs not only die younger but also have poor health over a more extended period. Drugs affect their work, relationships, and consequently reduce their quality of life .
These results prove how far Islam predicts the disadvantages of using drugs and why it is declared as forbidden (Haram) on almost all of the Islamic decrees.
Coexistence means living together, cooperating socially and economically of either the people of two countries to fulfill their livelihood or two individuals who might not share the same interests. In other words, coexistence includes being together, not interfering in others’ private affairs, and respecting the rights of others. Islam, which considers both the individual and social needs of human beings, offers a complete package for a thriving social life. Through its teachings, the Prophet’s (PBUH & HP) and infallible Imams’(AS) tradition (Sunnah), and the Quranic teachings, Islam has provided some clear guidelines for Muslims and the followers of other religions peaceful coexistence in the Quran. Here, we focus mostly on what the Quran offers in this regard.
The first point raised about the peaceful coexistence in the Quran is that Muslims should deal with non-Muslims with justice and beneficence, as far as non-Muslims have not expressed any hostility against them and don’t respond to their kindness with hatred (60:8). In Surah Mumtahina, it is said that: “Allah forbids you only in regard to those who made war against you on account of religion and expelled you from your homes and supported [others] in your expulsion, that you make friends with them, and whoever makes friends with them—it is they who are the wrongdoers.”(60:9).
Accordingly, non-Muslims are in two groups — the first group who are in peace with Muslims and live peacefully with them. The Islamic government and Muslims of society should respect this group and recognize their rights. The second group is those who act against Muslims, Islam, and the Islamic government. Undoubtedly, they should be counteracted, and there would be no place for peace in this case . That’s why Imam Ali (AS) had devoted a share of public treasury (Bayt al-mal) to help the needy people of other religions. It means that an Islamic government does not overlook non-Muslims, but recognizes their rights and supports them. (10:57)
Humans naturally tend to reject any imposed idea or belief. And, the Quran never orders something which opposes to human’s nature. Hence, non-Muslims are not compelled to convert to Islam (2:256), and they are free to keep their religion. In Surah An’am, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH & HP) is told that: “Had Allah wished, they would not have ascribed partners [to Him]. We have not made you a caretaker for them, nor is it your duty to watch over them.” (6:107). Based on these verses, along with some others, Islam recognizes other Abrahamic religions, and no Muslim is permitted to force any non-Muslim to accept Islamic ideas. Still, Muslims should let non-Muslims to retain their own religious views and beliefs and to live peacefully in society.
If Muslims want to discuss their religious viewpoints with followers of other religions, they are told: “not to argue with the People of the Book, except in a manner which is best” (29:46). It means to exchange peacefully with logical reasoning and argument. Even in their discussions with polytheists, Muslims are prevented from insulting those whom they invoke besides Allah Almighty; otherwise, they would affront Allah Almighty out of hostility (6:108) . It should be noted that the aim of these discussions should be clarifying the truth and not obliging others to convert. As stated above, no one is forced to accept what we believe. This manner ensures Muslims and non-Muslims peaceful coexistence in the Quran.
In surah Baqara, it is stated that Prophet Muhammad (PBUH & HP) and the faithful have faith in what has been sent down to him (PBUH & HP) from Allah Almighty, and they believe in Allah Almighty, His angels, His scriptures and His apostles, and they make no distinction between any of His apostles (2:285). It means that a real believer should recognize all previous Prophets sent by Allah Almighty and what they have brought to humans from Him . Besides, in Ayat 62, the followers of other religions like the Jews, the Christians, and the Sabaeans who are faithful to Allah and the Day of Judgement and act righteously are told to have their reward from Allah Almighty (2:62). This is another proof that Islam recognizes other religions. Also, it reveals that there have been faithful people among the followers of other religions who truly believed in Allah almighty according to the teachings of their faith.
In dealing with the opponents of Islam, Islam orders Muslims to accept if they offer peace and declare a ceasefire and emphasizes that: “Allah does not allow you any course [of action] against them” (4:90). In other verses, Muslims are told that: “If they incline toward peace, then you [too] incline toward it” (8:61).
Another example that demonstrates Islamic teachings promote peaceful coexistence in the Quran with non-Muslims is that in the Quran, Muslims are told that: “the food of those who were given the Book is lawful to you, and your food is lawful to them” (5:5). Besides, according to the Quran, Muslim men can marry the chaste ones from among faithful women, and chaste women of those who were given the Book before Muslims, once their dowries are paid to them (5:5). These two instances show that Muslims are free to fraternize with non-Muslims and exchange with them in society.
What has been mentioned above are only some of the many Islamic guidelines that encourage treating others kindly and behaving friendly with the followers of other religions. That makes them incline slightly towards Islam, such that after a Christian boy who had converted to Islam changed his bad behavior with his mother, the mother was attracted and converted to Islam, too. This, together with many instances of the way that Prophet Muhammad (PBUH & HP) and Infallible Imams (AS) treated non-Muslims, proves Islam's deep care for the way Muslims deal with others which should ultimately lead them toward tolerance and maintaining a peaceful coexistence as stated in the Quran.
- M. A. Amini, “The principle of peaceful coexistence with non-Muslims in Islam,” Ma’rifat Journal, no. 165, p. 35-52.
- M. H. Tabataba’ei, “Translation of Tafsir Al-Mizan, “vol. 2, p. 681.
Love and kindness are two of the main components of Islam. To the extent that Allah regards Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HP) as kind and benevolent towards people of all nations in the Holy Quran: “We did not send you but as a mercy to all the nations (21:107).” And says that if he had not been gentle to people, they would have surely scattered from around him. (3:159)
Imam Hussain (AS), following in his grandfather’s footsteps, also placed particular emphasis on this prophetic trait and ethic. He was not only gentle and affectionate towards his children, family, and relatives, but also showed great care, compassion, and respect towards others, even his enemies. The whole Fifty-seven years of Imam Hussain (AS)’s life are replete with such exemplary behavior. He did not give up this attitude towards others even in the hardest situations, like when he was at war with his enemies in the desert of Karbala.
Here we will see only a few examples of Imam Hussain’s (AS) love and affection towards others in the last days of his life:
Imam Hussain (AS)'s Attention to Children:
During the battle, in Karbala, Imam Hussain (AS) would sympathize with his family and children and treated them with love and care whenever possible.
At the night before Ashura, Imam Hussain (AS) refers to his relatives and companions as the best ones ever: “It is a fact that I am not aware of any companions more faithful and honest than my companions and any relatives more righteous and kind than my relatives.” Imam Hussain (AS) then permits all his companions to leave him without any restrictions to save their lives, but they don’t accept. On several occasions, such as the morning of Ashura, he addresses them with the most respectful titles like “the nobles.” Also, it is narrated that during the battle, Imam (AS) would be present near his martyred companions himself, and wept and prayed for them one by one, even for the African slave, Jawn.
Imam Hussain (AS) never used foul language or even one wrong word against his enemy. He would not hesitate to take advantage of any opportunity to stop the violence and invite his enemies to peace. For instance, when Imam Hussain (AS) and his companions came across Hur, and his army, who were supposed to intercept Imam Hussain (AS) outside Kufa, Imam Hussain (AS) quenched their thirst. He, along with his companions, also even gave water to their horses.
Another example of Imam Hussain’s compassion for the enemy is his encounter with Umar ibn Sa’ad and the other commanders of the enemy’s army on the day of Ashura, and his effort to persuade them to stop the war. In fact, Imam (AS) did not want them to commit an unforgivable sin- i.e., killing the innocent Imam (AS) and his companions- that would make them end up in hell.
So, it was only Imam Hussain's (AS) love and mercy towards humankind that touched every one’s heart, even his enemy to the extent that some of whom, like Hur, would surrender to righteousness, accompany Imam Hussain (AS), perform their prayer in congregation behind him, fight against his enemy and finally be martyred along with him.
This is Imam Hussain’s (AS) lesson of tolerance and benevolence towards all human beings, which is beyond any religion or sect; that if one does not want to follow a particular religion, he/she can at least live a human life .