“…and when you feel secure, perform the [complete] prayers, for the prayer is indeed a timed prescription for the faithful.” (4:103)
It is obligatory to perform the following five prayers every day during the prescribed times:
Dawn prayer (Salat al-Fajr), which consists of two units (each unit of prayer is called a rak`ah)
Midday prayer (Salat al-Zuhr) consisting of four units,
Afternoon prayer (Salat al-`Asr): four units,
Dusk prayer (Salat al-Maghrib): three units,
Night prayer (Salat al-`Isha): four units.
Performing the daily prayers involves taking specific steps in order (Tartib) and in regular succession without undue delay between them (Muwalat).
Adhan is a set of phrases recited to announce the time of prayer. Lexically, Adhan means announcement or declaration. Iqama literally means to keep up or to make upright. Recited after Adhan which is the first declaration, Iqama is the second and last call which indicates the actual start of the prayer. Adhan is the call for gathering, and Iqama is for standing up and preparing for prayers in Islam .
Recital Transliteration Translation
*4 *2 Allāhu Akbar Allah is the greatest
*2 *2 Ash-hadu an-lā ilāha illā allāh I acknowledge that there is no God but Allah.
*2 *2 Ash-hadu anna Muhammadan-Rasul ullāh I acknowledge Muhammad (PBUH) is the Messenger of Allah.
*2 *2 Ash-hadu anna Alian Waliullah I acknowledge that Ali (AS) is the Chosen Guardian (Wali) of Allah
*2 *2 Hayya'alas-Salāt Hasten to prayer (Salat)
*2 *2 Hayya ʿalal-falāḥ Hasten to success
*2 *2 Hayya ʿala Khair-e-lamal Hasten to the best of deeds
*2 *2 Qad Qamat-e-Salat Verily the prayer (Salat) has begun
- *2 Allāhu Akbar Allah is the greatest
*2 *2 Lā ilāha illā-llāh There is no God but Allah
When Muslims hear the call to prayer (Adhan), they must first perform preliminary ablution (Wudu). The manner of performing Wudu and prayer (Salat) based on the Quran and the Prophet’s teachings (Sunnah of the Holy Prophet) is explained below:
“When you stand up for prayer, wash your faces and your hands up to the elbows, and wipe a part of your heads and your feet, up to the ankles” (5:6).
It is stated in a saying (Hadith) from the Holy Prophet (PBUH&HP) that Wudu if performed carefully, increases the presence of your heart when praying.
According to the verse of the Quran above, the act of Wudu consists of four steps and six parts of the body:
Washing the face
Washing the forearms
Wiping the head
Wiping the feet
Evoke your intention (Niyyah) at the beginning as, “I am performing Wudu for the satisfaction of Allah, and to seek closeness to Him.”
First, pour water over your face with your right hand and wipe it from the tip of your hairline to the bottom of your chin in such a way that the water reaches all parts horizontally within reach of the span of the hand from the middle-finger to the thumb.
With your left hand, pour water over the right arm and wipe it over both sides from the elbow to the finger-tips (not vice versa).
Repeat the very same step for your left arm using the right hand.
Note that washing your face and arms once as described is obligatory. Second such washing is recommended while subsequent washings are prohibited.
Then wipe a wet finger of the right hand from the crown of the head to the hair-line. Make sure your hand does not touch your forehead or else the wetness of your hand will get mixed with the water of the forehead which will make the whole act of Wudu invalid.
Finally, wipe your feet with the moisture that is still on your hands. Wipe your right foot with the right, and then your left foot with the left hand, starting from the tip of any toe up till your ankle joint. It is recommended to wash your hands after this last step.
Stand upright facing the direction of Mecca (Qiblah) and recite the Adhan and Iqama. Please note that all the recitations during the prayer must be in Arabic. Although approximate transliteration has been given below for each recitation, it is best to try and learn the Arabic script and pronunciations.
Intention (Niyyah): Form the following solemn intention in your mind: “I offer this ____ (name of a particular prayer) prayer, of ____ (number of units) Rak`ahs seeking closeness to God.”
Takbirat-ul-Ihram: Lift both hands up to the ears and say:
“Allah-u-Akbar (God is Greater)”
This sentence, the Takbir, will be repeated several times during the prayer.
The Standing (Qiyam): Remain in the standing position while performing the recitations in the next step, Qira’ah.
The Recitation (Qira'ah): Initially, recite the first chapter (Surah) of the Holy Qur’an, the chapter of (Surah) al-Fatiha:
“Bismillah- ir-rahmaan-ir-raheem (In the Name of Allah, the All-beneficent, the All-merciful)
Alhamd-u- lillah-i-Rabb-i-l'alameen (All praise belongs to Allah, Lord of all the worlds)
Ar-rahmaan-ir-raheem (the All-beneficent, the All-merciful)
Malik-i-yawm-id-deen (Master of the Day of Retribution)
Iyyaak-a-na`bud-u-wa iyyaak-a- nasta`een (You [alone] do we worship, and to You [alone] do we turn for help)
Ihdina-s-siraat- al-mustaqeem (Guide us on the straight path)
Siraat- al-lazeen-a- an`amta `alayhim (the path of those whom You have blessed)
Qayr-il- maqzoob-i `alayhim (such as have not incurred Your wrath)
wa la-’zzaalleen (nor are astray)”
Secondly, recite another complete Chapter of the Holy Quran (we choose the short chapter number 112, Surah al-Ikhlas):
“Bismillah- ir-rahmaan-ir-raheem (In the Name of Allah, the All-beneficent, the All-merciful)
Qul huw-allah-u-ahad (Say," He is Allah, the One)
Allah-u-samad (Allah is the All-embracing)
Lam yalid wa lam yulad (He neither begat, nor was begotten)
Wa lam yakul-lahu kufuwan ahad (nor has He any equal)”
After completing the second Surah, the worshipper would say the Takbir (see above) and then bow down until the hands can be placed on the knees.
The following Invocation (Zikr) should be recited once in this position:
“Subhana rabbi-al-`azeem-i- wa bi-hamdih (Glory be to my Lord, the Great, and praise belongs to Him)”
Then, resume the standing position, and it is recommended to recite:
“Sami`Allah-u- liman hamidah (God hears the one who praises Him)”
Say Takbir, then go into Prostration (Sujud).
It means that one should place their forehead on earth in a special manner, with the intention of humility before God.
While performing the Sujud, it is obligatory to place the forehead, both the palms and the knees, and the tip of both big toes on the ground. The following Zikr should be recited in the Sujud once:
“Subhana rabbi-al-a`laa wa bi-hamdih (Glory be to my Exalted Lord, and praise belongs to Him)”
After first Sujud, raise the forehead and sit up in a kneeling position with the ankle of one foot on the sole of the other, with hands resting on the thighs and say Takbir, optionally followed by:
“Astaghfir-u-llaah-a- rabbi wa atubu ilayh (I ask forgiveness of God, my Lord, and I turn towards him)”
Followed by Takbir again. Repeat the Sujud again and then sit up in a kneeling position and say Takbir.
Sit up for a moment and then rise while (optionally) saying:
“Bihawl-i-llah-i- wa quwwatih-i aqumu wa aq`ud (With God’s help and through His power I stand and sit)”
After regaining the upright posture, recite Surah al-Fatiha and another Surah of the Holy Quran as in the first unit. Then say Takbir, and then do supplication (Qunut).
Keep your hands in front of your face, turning the palms facing upwards, and keeping both the hands and the fingers close together; it is recommended to recite the following:
“Rabbana aatina fi-’d-dunyaa hasanatan wa fi-’l-akhirat-i hasanatan wa qinaa `azab an-nar (2:201)
(O our Lord! Bestow upon us good in this world and good in the Hereafter, and protect us from the torment of the fire)”
[Note: Qunut is an optional step]
Say Takbir, followed by the Ruku`, then the two Sujuds, both as described for the first unit.
After the second prostration resume the kneeling position and recite:
Ash’had-u al-laa ilaha illa-llah wahdah-u la shareeka lah, (I bear witness that there is no god apart from Allah, Who is unique and without partners.)
wa ash’had-u anna Muhammadan `abduh-u wa rasuluh (I also bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and His Prophet)
Allahumm-a sall-i `ala Muhammadin wa Aale Muhammad (O God, bless Muhammad and the progeny of Muhammad.)
If you are performing the Dawn (Fajr) prayer, please skip the rest and go to section entitled Completion.
If you are performing the Midday (Zuhr), Afternoon (`Asr), Dusk (Maghrib), or Night (`Isha) prayer, continue by standing up for the third unit while optionally reciting “Bihawl-i-llah-i….” as described at the end of the section First unit.
The Four Recitations (Tasbihat al-Arba`ah): after regaining the upright posture, either recite Surat al-Fatiha or recite Tasbihat al-Arba`ah (optionally three times), as follows:
“Subhan-a-llah-i wa-’l-hamd-u lillah-i wa laa ilaha ill-a-llah-u wa-llah-u akbar (Glory be to God, and praise be to God; there is no god but Allah, and Allah is Greater)”
Perform the Ruku`, stand up momentarily and then do the two sujuds. This is exactly as described under section First unit. If you are performing the Dusk (Maghrib) prayers, recite the testimonies (Tashahhud) next. Then skip the rest and go to Completion.
If you are performing the Midday (Zuhr), Afternoon (`Asr), or Night (`Isha) prayer, continue by standing up for the fourth unit while optionally reciting “Bihawl-i-llah-i….” as described at the end of the section First unit.
This is identical to the third unit.
After the second prostration resume the kneeling position and recite the Tashahhud.
After reciting the Tashahhud of the final unit, recite the Salutations (Taslim) which completes your prayer:
“Assalaamu `alayka ayyuhan nabiyyu wa rahmat-u-llah-i wa barakatuh (Peace be upon you, O Prophet, and God’s mercy and blessing.)*
Assalamu `alayna wa `ala `ibadillah-is- saliheen (Peace be upon us, and upon the righteous servants of God)*
Assalamu `alaykum wa rahmat-u-llah-i wa barakatuh (Peace be upon you [all], and God’s mercy and blessing.)”
Thereafter (optionally) say Takbir three times.
One of the ten practical principles of Islam, The Holy Struggle, Jihad, is literally defined as “hardship, endeavor, exaggeration in work, reaching the height of something and capability”, while in the Sharia of Islam Jihad is sacrificing one’s life and property primarily for the sake of Allah, elevating and sustaining Islamic beliefs and standpoints. In this sense, Jihad is the act of Defending the Islamic territory against the assaults and intrusions of outsiders and invaders.
The essence of Jihad lies in Defense, thus any violence which is shown with the intention of invading a country or a nation’s lives, property, etc. and for manipulating their economic potentials or human resources, not only is not called Jihad but also considered as the overt manifestation of injustice and cruelty which is strongly rejected in Islam.
If an individual or a nation participates in a struggle in order to defend their life, money, property, or independence, they have in fact committed a holy task since they have stood up against the injustice of the intruder who has questioned their legitimate human rights. Therefore, the act of Jihad is permitted in the following cases:
When the life and possessions of the people of a country are threatened by the invasion of the intruders and opportunists, they have the right to defend themselves against these threats and retain what has been taken away from them.
It is the whole nation’s responsibility to defend the personal and domestic privacy of its members, preventing the enemies to violate and invade the family units especially women and children.
To defend national independence and integrity is a totally legitimate action for a nation. Accordingly, if a government or nation tends to undermine or insult the independence of another nation and try to manipulate them, the latter is bound to defend itself in order to restore its legitimate rights.
The struggle to retain your rights is not limited to an individual or a nation; rather there are some values that are far beyond these and include the whole of humanity. In other words, Jihad is the act of defending the “right” that spans not only personal and public ones but also that of humanity.
Freedom is one of these human values that is precious for every single person on earth regardless of their nationality or religion, so when it is threatened or undermined in any place around the world every conscious soul finds it necessary and feels responsible to defend and retain it; if a group of people is being oppressed or treated unfairly, one cannot and should not remain indifferent to this injustice and is bound to fight for their freedom. There existed and still exist many freedom-loving people who are not just concerned about their own country or nation and instead strive for the freedom of all human beings around the globe.
To further illustrate this issue, let’s consider this example: nowadays, medical researchers are in a constant struggle to find a final and determinate cure for cancer, but they are still unsuccessful. Imagine the cure was found by a medical company, but its managers amassed it and prevented people from using it in order to increase their own interest, or even destroyed the formula so that no one would reach it, they have violated the rights of the whole humanity and should be fought with.
The answer is yes monotheism, and the concepts like this are of human values and need to be defended, but it does not mean that we are allowed to impose these beliefs on an individual or a nation since faith and belief is something that each person should reach and accept through his own intellectual and logical investigation and not through force; this is clearly reflected in this verse of Holy Quran: “there is no compulsion in religion” (2:256).
Nevertheless, if this axiom -or any other fundamental belief in Islam- is being threatened or insulted in order to arise enmity and to undermine Islam, it is every Muslim’s duty to stand up for this cause.
Up to this point, we understood that the keyword in the definition of Jihad is Defense in the four cases above. The religion of Islam is fundamentally the religion of peace and strongly recommends a peaceful relationship with others, as these verses explicitly reveal: “And if they incline toward peace, then you [too] incline toward it, and put your trust in Allah. Indeed He is the All-hearing, the All-knowing” (8:61), or “So if they [polytheists] keep out of your way and do not fight you, and offer you peace, then Allah does not allow you any course[of action ]against them”(4: 90).
However Islam makes a clear distinction between the idea of peace and surrender; while it encourages the former, it emphatically rejects the latter. In other words, peace is reached when both parties are on friendly terms, respecting each other’s beliefs and rights mutually, and live beside one another without intruding or violating each other’s rights.
But if one of the parties were to keep on invading the other one – either covertly or overtly -, and the one whose rights have been threatened did not react, this would not be called peace anymore, rather surrendering and yielding to their injustice which is totally unacceptable in Islam.
Finally, it should be noted that Islam is a religion that ranges all aspects of human’s life and has established rules for each; accordingly, it should include a rule which would protect individuals as well as the society against possible threats and guarantee society’s tranquility and harmony through retaining the social justice. Jihad is that principle that would practically provide these opportunities for Muslims.
Fasting (Sawm) in Islam is not a very complicated task- just like many other tasks in this holy religion. However, having a general knowledge of its rules and regulations is essential for all Muslims. Fasting is generally defined as the act of voluntarily preventing oneself from eating and drinking during a particular period in the day – from the time of dawn prayer(Salat al-Fajr) until dusk prayer (Salat al-maghrib). According to the Sharia of Islam, there are seven types of fasting that are obligatory for Muslims to perform ; one of the most important of which is fasting during the month of Ramadan. lets see how to fast.
The process of fasting is quite an easy one; first, you will need to make your intention (Niyyah) clear for your fasting: “I will fast today seeking Allah’s contentment and closeness to him.” Note that you should make your intention- whether in your mind or by saying the actual words- before the time of dawn Prayer (Salat al-Fajr). The next step is to avoid doing certain actions during the time of fasting. Basically, there are nine actions that would void your fast:
Eating and drinking (if you forget you are fasting and ate or drank something unintentionally, your fasting won’t be voided)
Having sexual intercourse
Insulting Allah and his holy prophets
Inhaling thick dust
Immersing your head completely in water
Not having performed the obligatory ablutions before sunrise
Doing enema using liquids
To vomit intentionally 
In certain cases, fasting would lose its obligation. If you are a traveler, you won’t need to fast, if you have become temporarily ill and by fasting your illness would worsen, fasting will be forbidden for you, and if you fast you have committed a sin.
Nevertheless, you will have to fast before the coming of the next Ramadan, instead of the one(s) you have missed. However, if you have a chronic sickness – e.g., diabetes- and according to your doctor’s view fasting is harmful to you forever, instead of fasting you will have to pay a certain amount of money in order to be given to underprivileged people in society called atonement (Kaffareh) .
Muslims celebrate Eid-al-Fitr, Feast of Fast-Breaking, at the end of Ramadan which falls on the first day of the Islamic month of Shawwal. This religious Eid is a single day during which Muslims are not permitted to fast.
Many Muslims attend a particular congregational prayer (Salat al-Jama'ah) to thank the Almighty who enabled them to fast and to remember the needy and the destitute. It is also compulsory for Muslims to pay Zakat al-Fitr (Fitrah) during Eid al-Fitr, preferably before offering the Eid prayers.
Zakatul-Fitr is a mandatory religious tax paid by those who can afford it as a kind of charity at the sunset of Eid al Fitr night (i.e., the night preceding Eid day). Whoever is an adult, sane, neither unconscious, nor poor, nor the slave of another, should give, on his own behalf as well as all those who are his dependents, about three kilos of wheat, barley, dates, raisins, rice or millet, etc. per person. It is also permissible if he pays the price of one of these items in cash. Fitrah should be given to deserving believers whose income is not sufficient to spend on their families for one year .
It is noteworthy that fasting is not a mere act of depriving oneself of foods or drinks; in fact, the most important aspect of fasting is its spiritual impact upon man. It makes human's soul kind, strengthens his determination, and moderates his instincts. Trying to avoid foods and drinks in Ramadan, which are allowed on normal days, fasting helps people keep away from forbidden deeds (Haram) more easily.
Fasting is a special act of worship that is only between humans and God since no one else knows for sure if this person is actually fasting. Imam Ali (AS) explains the philosophy of this act as below:
“Allah ordered the observance of fasts for fostering (the attribute of) sincerity within the people” .
Fasting is also a practice for human beings to be more observant of their actions and to experience, even for a very short period, what poor people go through in their lives. God has obliged humans to fast to convey the message of equality between the rich and the poor; the rich experience the pangs of hunger and thus fulfill their obligations to the destitute.
If the wealthy nations of the world were to fast for just a few days in the year and experience hunger, pain and trouble poor people suffer from, they would probably exhibit mercy upon them, and there would not still exist any hungry people in the world .
The miraculous effect of abstinence (from food) in curing various diseases has been ascertained in modern as well as ancient medicine. Lots of articles have been written on the medical and therapeutic effects of fasting.
In a well-known tradition, the Noble Prophet (PBUH&HP) says:
“Fast, in order that you become healthy.”
It is a fact that the cause of a great number of diseases is extravagance in the consumption of various types of food.
The prophet (PBUH&HP) also says:
“The stomach is the house of all maladies and abstinence (from food) is the best of all cures” .
When we eat or drink, we inevitably enter many toxic substances into our body; consequently, organs should always be working to get rid of these harmful materials. The detoxification process of the body will be considerably accelerated during the time of fasting.
Since our body does not receive any substance externally, the materials that had been stored in the body will be used to produce sufficient energy; thus, the infections and microbes that were accumulated in our body will be released along with those materials and our blood will be purified noticeably. It has been claimed that fasting will balance the hormones in our body and will result in better functioning of our organs  & .
To conclude, the ultimate goal of fasting in Islam is to redirect our attention toward our inner selves. In addition, it serves as a reminder for us of our superiority to other creatures in respect to our power of will, our capacity to choose to fight against evilness and to refuse to be driven by our desires. In consequence, we would finally be prepared to reach the summit of humanity and become the perfect human who is worthy of God’s attention and reward.
May Allah bless you and accept your fasting as well as all your other good deeds.