A very significant aspect of Islamic life is “modesty.” According to the Islamic application of the term, modesty is a state of self-restraint which helps us check our manners and appearance, and correct them when necessary.
This general principle is also the main source of Islamic dress code or “Hijab” in Islam which has nowadays caused a lot of questions and contradictions both among Muslims and non-Muslims.
When talking about hijab in Islam, maybe the first thing that comes to your mind is women’s wearing a headscarf. But is it all that the word refers to? Does hijab also have something to do with our manner and behavior? Does it concern Muslim men as well as women?
You can read this article to find out what hijab in Islam is really all about.
Well, hijab is an Islamic ruling which is also mentioned in the Quran [i]. And submission to God, of course, means that we should follow His advice even if –or especially when—it is not really easy for us to do so!
Still, if a woman, for example, thinks that she can preserve her modesty without wearing a headscarf and is not quite convinced to conform to the Islamic cover limits –we all have our failures or our personal ideas, don’t we?—it doesn't mean that she cannot be a Muslim, or that she will not receive God’s mercy!
You can read this article to find out if wearing hijab in Islam is actually a matter of choice!
Islam has stressed on cleanness and tidiness maybe more than any other religion in the world. But does Islamic dress code or hijab place any restrictions on wearing makeup or jewelry? Are there special occasions where Muslims are prohibited from or, to the contrary, prompted to make themselves up?
This article tries to answer your questions with regards to wearing make-up and jewelry.
Some people think that Hijab and its implications are only related to Islam and Muslims. Well, it’s not. It may be the case that the special form of Hijab which is used by Muslims has some differences with other religions.
Have a look at this article, If you want to know more about the history of Hijab and modesty in the Abrahamic religions before Islam.
Really, why would women cover their hair? Why don’t men do this? What is that they are hiding beneath this Hijab? What is the philosophy behind it?
Is it useful for Muslim women or men? Is it only related to appearance and observing some religious etiquette? This article provides answers to this questions based on Islamic sources.
[i] Quran 24:30,31
Some people who are not well acquainted with the true Islamic teachings think that Islam has not provided for all Muslims equal social rights. And on account of the fact that Islam has made some distinctions between men's and women’s rights they conclude that the same distinctions are made in their social rights. As a result, the picture of women in Islam to them is usually the stereotype of an oppressed, inferior figure and bereft of any right.
Islam is the religion of equality and gender is not a standard for the preference of one over another. In fact, Islam has not only taught the equality of all humans before God but also promoted it in the social sphere. Consequently, in the Islamic social system men and women are granted equal rights and there is no difference between them about their gender.
But, the point is that “equality” does not mean the “similarity” of their rights, since men and women are not identical to one another in many respects . Therefore, we can deduce, although through comparing their rights a kind of disparity appears at the individual level, both of them privileges equal rights on the social scale.
The concept of women’s equal social rights is practically extended in all aspects of social life, and meanwhile, the “equality” does not reflect the meaning of “sameness.” Instead, it means that their social rights are equated in the matters related to self-worth and individual value to those of men.
Women are given a free hand to choose the occupation they want. But they have to note that their occupations should neither be incompatible with their physical and spiritual characteristics  nor in conflict with their duties towards their families.
This is why Islam has absolved them from providing for the family in the first place so that they become able to take care of their household as best as possible . However, they are entitled to receive a fair wage by their works either outside the house from their employers or inside the house from their husbands if they ask for it .
There is no restriction on women traveling alone if it is not inconsistent with the interests of their families. And regarding their social presence, it is a women’s right to be protected from men’s malicious eyes, whose obligation is casting his eyes down towards them .
In the Islamic social system, an equal emphasis is given to women for benefiting from social security systems and social services . Also, women’s right in benefiting from Islamic legal and juridical systems is equally safeguarded.
Many stories from the early period of Islamic history deal with women who referred their disputes to the Prophet (PBUH&HP) in the same way as men sought his judgment . Moreover, not only they share the right of election and the nomination to political offices with men but also can access the highest levels of political authority due to the Islamic laws, provided that it is not inconsistent with their physical and spiritual capacities and their responsibilities towards their families .
This right is so much important that Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HP) once commanded that even slaved girls should be educated  and in one famous narration he considered seeking knowledge an essential task for both sexes .
In the light of the above facts, we can conclude that the idea of inferiority of the social status of women in Islam to men is void and baseless. However, as it was mentioned earlier, men's and women’s social rights are “equal” and not “similar” due to great differences between their characteristics.
That is why the social obligations of women in Islam are narrower than those of men; as Islam has exempted them from the burden of providing maintenance for the family  and even some religious practices.
- Mutahhari, Murtadha, The Rights of Women in Islam.
- Amini, Ibrahim, An Introduction to the Rights and Duties of Women in Islam.
- Penny, Sue, Islam, p.39.
- Lois, Beck, Women in Iran from 1800 to the Islamic Republic, pp. 165-166.
- Muhammad Javad, Bahonar, Islam and Women’s Rights.
- Universal Islamic Declaration of Human Rights; this article is available at https://www.whyislam.org.
- Johnson, Andy, Religion and Men’s violence against Women, pp. 322-325.
- Mahmudi, Hassan, Issues in Women’s rights: A Practitioner’s Resource Book, p. 47.
- Nasir, Jamal, The Statue of Women Under Islamic Law and Modern Islamic Legislation, p. 15.
- social rights
- Cornell, Vincent, Voices of Islam: Voices of life: family, home, and society, p. 85.
The first days of Islam were very difficult days for the Prophet (PBUH&HP) because he did not have many followers and the infidels could conspire for the Prophet (PBUH&HP) more easily. They even attacked his house to assassinate the Prophet (PBUH&HP), but thanks to Allah, this conspiracy was in vain. But in these difficult days, the Prophet (PBUH&HP) had very valuable companions with him, one of these precious followers was the wife of the Prophet, Lady Khadijah (AS). Now we want to know more about the Prophet's wife and her services to Islam and Muslim women.
Lady Khadijah (AS) was from the Quraysh tribe. Her father was Khuwaylid and her mother was Fatima, daughter of Zaydeh, both of whom were among the most rooted and noble Arab families in the Hejaz. Khuwaylid was the eldest of his tribe during the pre-Islamic period. Before the advent of Islam, Khadijah was considered one of the most prominent Quraysh women, so much so that she was called by the Lady of Quraysh women.
Although she was a beautiful and wealthy woman and had a lot of suitors, she did not accept them and started a business with the big amount of money she had. Until Prophet’s uncle asked his nephew to work for Khadijah like his other relatives, and he went to the Sham business on his behalf, and so it was continued. The decency of Muhammad (PBUH&HP) and his talent, merit, distinguished personality, and reputation for fiduciary duty made him famous in particular and in general that he was called "Muhammad Amin" *. This news and reports made Khadijah fascinated by her lineage, merit, character, and liking.
Lady Khadijah (AS) was the first Muslim woman in promoting Islamic culture and as a role model of a Muslim woman has played a great role and many women have learned lessons from her practical training. She was so faithful that even the Prophet (PBUH&HP) said this about her in various narrations, we will read some of them to know more about her great role and practical lessons:
1) The best women in the world are Khadijah and Maryam, the daughter of Imran (1)
2) One day, the Messenger of God (PBUH&HP) drew four lines. Then he asked: Do you know what these lines are? People said: God and His Messenger are more knowledgeable. The Prophet (PBUH&HP) said: The best women of Paradise are Maryam, the daughter of Imran, Khadijah, the daughter of Khuwaylid, and Fatimah, the daughter of Muhammad (peace be upon her), and Asiya, the wife of Pharaoh. (2)
In 24 years of living together with the Holy Prophet of Islam (PBUH&HP), Khadijah performed many services for the religion of Islam. The financial, spiritual, and emotional support of the Prophet (PBUH&HP), the acknowledgment of the Prophet in a time when no one approved of him, and his help against the persecution of the polytheists are some of these valuable services. After marrying the Prophet (PBUH&HP), Khadijah gave her property to him so that he could spend it however he wanted. The Holy Prophet of Islam says in this regard: "No wealth was as useful to me as the wealth of Khadijah."(3)
Khadijah, this noble lady not only believed in the message of the Prophet from the bottom of her heart but also helped him in the face of hardships and denials of polytheists and ill-wishers. While she was alive, she did not allow the persecution of the polytheists to be severe on the Messenger of Allah (PBUH&HP). When the Messenger of Allah (PBUH&HP) came home with a load of calamity and sorrow, Khadijah comforted him and removed the worry from his mind. The property of Khadijah was used as a suitable tool in the service of Islam and its development from the very beginning. Interestingly, the last part of Khadijah’s property was spent by Imam Ali (AS) during his emigration trip to Medina. Most Muslims traveled with Khadija's property. The last of them was a caravan led by Imam Ali (AS). (4)
She was also the mother of Fatima (AS), from whom the generation of Imams was born. Imam Sadigh (AS) said: "When Khadijah (AS) chose the Holy Prophet (PBUH&HP) as her husband, the women of Mecca turned away from her because of enmity. Not only did they not greet Khadijah; they even prevented other women from visiting her. In this way, a strange terror overwhelmed Khadijah.
Of course, she was more afraid of the Prophet (PBUH&HP) to be harmed than herself. When Khadijah became pregnant with Fatima, Fatima spoke to her in her mother's womb and advised her to be patient, but Khadijah kept this secret from the Prophet until one day she entered and heard that Khadijah was talking with someone. He looked around; but he did not see anyone, he asked: O Khadijah! Who are you talking to? Khadijah, in response, told that she was talking to the child she had in her womb, Prophet (PBUH&HP) replied: “Gabriel informed that this is a girl child. She and her descendants are pure, blessed, and Allah will create my descendants from him. From his generation are born the Imams of the religion and the Almighty, after breaking the revelation, makes them his successors on earth.” (5)
The position and role of lady Khadijah (AS) in the most difficult period of the history of Islam this affair is common knowledge. she played an important role in establishing and spreading Islam during the Besat** period with her material and spiritual support of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). She is a role model for men and women in society because she raised many human values and perfections inside herself. She gave all his wealth, economic facilities, and existence in the way of satisfaction of Allah and also with the spiritual, psychological, and social support for her husband, Prophet (PBUH), in promoting Islam and advancing its goals, thus making his name as a real and true model for a Muslim woman. She died in the tenth year of the Besat and shortly after the death of the Prophet’s uncle, Abu Talib (AS). Muslim women can learn from the practical lessons of lady Khadija (AS) throughout the history of Islam to be behind their husbands in any case and not to withhold any support from him.
- Al Umdah Ibn Tariq (page 405)
- Sirat Ibn Hisham (first Volume - Page 168)
- Encyclopedia of Shia (second volume – page 47)
- Encyclopedia of Shia (second volume – page 49)
- Encyclopedia of Shia (third volume – page 46)
* Amin means a trustee and someone who is trusted to keep the treasure of others while he does not betray or abuse the trust others gave him.
** Besat refers to the election of Prophet Mohammad (PBUHHP) as a prophet and the beginning of his mission