“O believers, when the proclamation is made for prayer on the Day of Congregation (Friday), hasten to God's remembrance and leave trafficking aside. That is better for you did you but know.” (62:9)
What do you think as you see a crowd of people gathered in one place, in regular rows? Acting altogether, simultaneously and in a well-organized manner? And they are dressed beautifully and smell good? Especially when they are hundreds and thousands? I see this as a glorious union. You can find this kind of forgathering in a Friday prayer.
Islam emphasizes three congregations: Haj which is held annually in a large scale, weekly Friday prayers and daily congregational prayers. Hajj is God’s plan to bring huge amounts of people together in Mecca, to show the power of Islam and unite the Muslims; besides its specific spirituality. Imam Baghir (AS), the fifth Imam, mentions Hajj as one of the five bases on which Islam is founded. 
Friday prayer is of such high importance and value that when a person said to Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HP) that he has got ready several times to go to Hajj but has not managed to, our prophet (PBUH) told him to attend Friday prayer which is Hajj of the poor. 
These show that Friday prayer has many characteristics of Hajj and can be influential in the same way, on a smaller scale though.
In several narrations from the last prophet (PBUH&HP) and his household, Friday is known as the best night and day of the week. It is recommended to perform full ablution (qusl), wear your best clothes, cut nails, brush your hair and beard, trim mustaches and wear perfume on this day. One of the main reasons for these recommendations is getting ready to show up among Muslims in Friday prayer.
Friday prayer (Salat al-Jumu’ah) is an Islamic ritual. It begins with two khutbahs (orations) by Imam al-Jumu’ah in which he advises people toward observing virtue. In the first one, he elaborates on religious concepts. In the second one, he discusses political and social matters of Muslims’ community.
Then Friday prayer is performed in congregation. It consists of two rak’ahs (parts). Each rak’ah has a qunut (raising hands); in the first rak’ah before ruku’ (bowing), in the second one after ruku’. Friday prayer and the two orations before that are a substitution to the four-rak’ah Salat al-Zuhr. After that, a four-rak’ah Salat al-Asr is performed. Please note that:
- Friday prayer cannot be performed individually.
- Except for the Imam, there should be at least four people for a Friday prayer to be held. 
Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HP) says: “Surely God-may be blessed and exalted- made Friday prayer obligatory for you. If someone abandons it in my life or after my death, aiming to belittle or deny it, God will distress them and won’t bless them in their work; and know! their prayer is not accepted, and know! their alms-tax (Zakat) is not accepted; and know! their Haj is not accepted; and know! their good deed is not accepted until they repent.” 
In an ordinary situation, i.e. the presence of innocent Imam, Friday prayer is a determinate duty. That is the same duty should be done and it cannot be replaced by another one. But now that the twelfth and last Imam, Mahdi (AS) is absent, Friday prayer is a selective duty. Which means you can choose between performing Friday prayer or Salat al-Zuhr. 
Yet, considering its profits, Muslims should pay special attention to Friday prayer.
Imam Reza (AS), the eighth Imam, states the importance of Friday Prayer and its Khutbahs comprehensively: “Because Friday is a public rendezvous, khutbah on Friday has been arranged to be a means for governor to advise people and to encourage them to obedience and to warn them of disobedience and to inform them of God’s will about their interest of religion and world and let them know of what has happened to them in the world and of events in which they have disadvantage or advantage.”
- We are forgetful beings. We need to be advised repeatedly so that we may not neglect the afterlife, miss the path, and forget necessities of the society.
- See these daily and weekly prayers as the stages of a ladder. By each prayer, we should take a step upwards. By praying, we are communicating with God and by practicing in a regular program, we can enhance the quality of this communication.
- Al-Kafi, v.2, p.18
- Wassail al-Shi'a, v.7, p.300
- Wassail al-Shi'a, v.7, p.302
- Wassail al-Shi'a, v.7, p.344
Many of us experience situations in our daily life when we get oppressed by other people, or we witness an act of injustice. We might prefer to keep silent to prevent the probable consequences, not realizing that this may keep us away from immediate harm, but it will be followed by greater consequences and damages later on.
One may ask how keeping silent against oppression and injustice will harm us later on? And what would have happened if Imam Hussain (AS) paid allegiance to Yazid, instead of putting himself and his family in such a horrible situation?
This article tries to explain the importance of standing against oppression and injustice by learning lessons from Imam Hussain (AS)’s uprising.
As we know, Imam Hassan (AS) remained silent and signed a peace treaty with the ruler of his time, Muawiaya. The main reason was that although Muawiaya had started to bring some changes in some of the rules of Islam, he still preserved his Islamic attitudes in public. Therefore, being in peace with him did not lead to so much damage to religion. But his son Yazid had no intention even to present an Islamic behavior in the Islamic society. Yet, Muawiaya chose him as the ruler after himself.
If Imam Hussain (AS) kept silence and paid allegiance to Yazid, it would have meant that he approved of his behavior. As a result, all the rulings and laws of Islam that the Prophet (PBUH&HP) had suffered to teach people for a more prosperous life would gradually disappear over time.
As Yazid forced Imam Hussain (AS) to pay allegiance to him, he notified his reasons for which he could not accept Yazid’s ruling over the Islamic society. The most important reason was that he was not behaving as a Muslim and had stood up against Allah’s orders.
It is clearly mentioned in the Quran that it is prohibited for Muslims to accept the ruling of a non-Muslim or a non-believer:
“O! You who have faith! Do not take those who take your religion in derision and play, from among those who were given the Book before you, and the infidels, as friends, and be wary of Allah, should you be faithful.” (5: 57)
However, Imam Hussain (AS) did not mean to start a war, and therefore, he took his family and left Medina for Mecca. Yazid knew that Imam had a significant impact on Muslims’ decisions and was afraid that Imam’s decision would spread among the Muslims and lead to their uprising against him. Thus, he sent his people to bring the Imam (AS) and to take his allegiance.
Imam left Medina for Kufah and then to Karbala. He was surrounded by the massive army of Yazid and had to choose. Should he have paid allegiance by force and teach a lesson to people that all he did to stand against oppression and injustice was wrong? Or should he have done what he did?
Based on his ideology and belief, and the teachings of the Prophet (PBUH&HP) that he had grown up with, Imam Hussain (AS) chose never to surrender against the injustice acts of Yazid. He, therefore, did not give up his duty to stand against injustice and along with his companions and sons, defended his household until they were all martyred.
The beauty and magnificence of his free spirit and his uprising started to spread throughout the world after his martyrdom.
He reached his goal to conserve the true religion of Islam and the pathway to prosperity by unveiling the real character and aims of those who desired to rule over the nation.
After the event of Karbala, his message on ‘standing against injustice and being free-spirited’ spread all over the world. He became a symbol for all those who care about their spirit, don’t want to accept oppression, tyranny, and injustice for the sake of their benefits in the short life of this world; people like Gandhi, the great leader of India.
From Imam Hussain's (AS) lifestyle, we learn that neglecting some mistakes may bring significant harm to society and, consequently, to our lives. Therefore, we should be wise and realize in our daily life to speak justice where oppression is taking place. That might be in our relations with our family members, our colleagues, or on a larger scale with those in power.
“Prophets and Imams (PBUT) are vivid examples and leaders that true believers should practically follow and not just worship. The example of Imam Hussain (AS) teaches us the lesson of standing against tyranny and injustice, the movement of honorable believers who preferred martyrdom to humiliation, and who have shown us what it means not to surrender.” 
The death of a loved one, the problems at home or work, and even maintaining the Islamic regulations and orders might sometimes be challenging for us. In all these cases and many others, the patience to which Islam has invited can be enlightening for a Muslim. This patience is not merely passive waiting. Instead, patience in Islam directs us toward bearing things in a more steadfast and hopeful way.
The word patience in Islam has several meanings like limiting and constraining the self (Nafs), and, strengthening it against anxiety and discomfort . Patience in Islam can be defined in two ways:
Being steadfast in doing what Islam and Allah have advised us to do and in preventing ourselves from whatever they have forbidden us to commit  & . The duties that God has assigned to human beings, and especially those He has determined for Muslims, are not free of hardship. Hence, one might ignore some of them or abandon entirely or choose to be patient and experience their eternal joy: “so worship Him and have the patience for His worship” (19:65).
Moreover, being steadfast in avoiding sins and against committing evil deeds is the highest level of patience and the hardest one. Resisting the temptations and desires that appeal to evil deeds, to worldly positions or personal benefits against the collective interests, etc. is not easy, such that Prophet Joseph (AS) said: “And I do not acquit myself. Indeed, the soul is a persistent enjoiner of evil, except those upon which my Lord has mercy.” (12:53).
Keeping the inner peace and serenity in difficulties and disasters such as the loss of a loved one or some money, sickness or natural disasters, and having perseverance and persistence in those circumstances such that one keeps calm, does not complain, nor shows overreaction are the signs of patience in our personal lives: “And We will surely test you with something of fear and hunger and a loss of wealth and lives and fruits, but give good tidings to those who are patient.” (2:155) , 
According to Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HP) patience is manifested in the behavior of the one who believes in the other world, its rewards and punishments, is pious and considers this world as a temporary dwelling, and is aware of his/her mortality and the fact that one day he/she will be no more and the difficult moments will soon pass and be forgotten .
Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HP) has explained the characteristics of a patient person as follows :
1. Is not lazy or indolent: being lazy and not doing anything equals ignoring the rights of others, including family, friends, neighbors, etc., as well as those of oneself ;
2. Does not get upset and disappointed: believing that there is a wisdom behind every happening, a patient person does not lose his\her hope . These are the ones that in case of sorrow, tell themselves that: “Indeed we belong to Allah, and indeed to Him, we will return.” (2:156);
3. Does not complain: a patient person does not complain  despite any difficulties that he\she faces, because he\she is satisfied with everything that God has considered for him\her to be the best thing that could happen. On the contrary, he\she asks God for the help and solution on that matter.
3. Controls his words: a patient person does not lose his temper when being frustrated or hurt and avoids insulting, slandering, and offensive words.
According to a Hadith, patience is required on five occasions:
• A respected person who is humiliated:
• An honest person who is accused of something unfairly;
• One who invites to justice but is ignored;
• An innocent person who is hurt;
• The one who seeks justice is opposed .
If one faces these troubles with serenity instead of showing a sudden naïve reaction, and if he\she be patient and trust the divine support, sooner or later he/she will find justice.
- patience in islam
- Al-Raghib al-Isfahani, "Al-Mufradat fi Gharib al-Quran", p. 474.
- M. M. Naraqi, "Jami' al-Sa'adat", vol. 3, p. 280.
- M. Davoudi, “Islamic Ethics (Principles and Definitions)”, p. 92.
- M. Al-Karajaki, “Madan al-Jawahir”, p. 40.
- Shaykh al-Kulayni, "al-Kafi", vol. 2, p. 91.
- Shaykh Sadooq, “Illal al-Sharaie: Reasons for Islamic Practices”, vol. 2, p. 498.
- “Misbah al-Sharia”, p. 154.